edward iv cause of death

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Elizabeth's mother, Jacquetta of Luxembourg, came from the upper nobility, but her father, Richard Woodville, was a middle ranking provincial knight. One view is the low status of the Woodvilles was part of the attraction, since unlike the Nevilles, they were reliant on Edward and thus more likely to remain loyal. The boy-king, the doctor reported, had been praying and doing penance daily in the belief that he faced death. Unit 5, Baden Place [70], It is not known where or how Edward's library was stored, but it is recorded that he transferred volumes from the Great Wardrobe to Eltham Palace and that he had a yeoman "to kepe the king's bookes". [56] Ross states Edward ’remains the only king in English history since 1066 in active possession of his throne who failed to secure the safe succession of his son. George died at the age of 2, whilst Edward and Richard were to be remembered through history as the Princes in the Tower. This was strengthened in 1447, when York became heir to the childless King Henry VI on the death of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester. [4][a], Allegations of illegitimacy were discounted at the time as politically inspired, and by later historians. However, the evidence for these is circumstantial. During the turbulent years of the Wars of the Roses, Edward IV reigned not once, but twice taking the crown for the Yorkists. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. [76], Edward had numerous mistresses, including Lady Eleanor Talbot and Elizabeth Lucy, possibly daughter of Thomas Waite (or Wayte), of Southampton. [17], On 2 February 1461,[d] Edward won a hard-fought victory at Mortimer's Cross. The most famous are the pretenders Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck but Yorkist challengers remained a concern for Henry VII and his son. Edward IV (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470,[1] then again from 11 April 1471 until his death. When Edward died suddenly in April 1483, his minor son became King Edward V, with his father's brother, the Duke of Gloucester, as Lord Protector. "[28], The marriage was certainly unwise and unusual, although not unheard of; Henry VI's mother, Catherine of Valois, married her chamberlain, Owen Tudor, while Edward's grandson Henry VIII created the Church of England to marry Anne Boleyn. Edward’s death was responsible indirectly for one of the most famous mysteries in history – what happened to his sons, the uncrowned king Edward V and his younger brother Richard. We know that Edward in his youth was an extremely capable and daring military commander who destroyed the House of Lancaster in a series of spectacular battles so this should come as no surprise. [85], Prior to his succession, Richard III declared his nephews illegitimate, on the grounds his brother's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville was invalid. [45], Edward entered London unopposed and took Henry prisoner; Warwick was defeated and killed at the Battle of Barnet on 14 April, while a second Lancastrian army was destroyed at the Battle of Tewkesbury on 4 May. Crosby Row Edward was a key figure in the family conflict known as the Wars of the Roses, a series of disputes fought between the royal houses of York and Lancaster for the English throne. : The Case for the Defence", British Library Catalogue of Illuminated Manuscripts, Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Edward_IV_of_England&oldid=982796711, Burials at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. There was little point in killing him while his son remained alive, since this would have transferred the Lancastrian claim from a frail captive to one who was young and free. [60] He invested heavily in business ventures with the City of London, which he used as an additional source of funding. Edward's Privy Council told him with unusual frankness, "she was no wife for a prince such as himself, for she was not the daughter of a duke or earl.

The battle was preceded by a meteorological phenomenon known as parhelion, or three suns, which he took as his emblem, the "Sun in splendour". His choice was Elizabeth Woodville, the widow of a Lancastrian knight, Sir John Grey, with two young sons. [69] In 1476, William Caxton established the first English printing press in the outbuildings of Westminster Abbey; on 18 November 1477, he produced Sayengis of the Philosophres, translated into English for Edward by Anthony Woodville.

Mental and physical frailties made him incapable of ruling and resulted in an internal struggle for control, made worse because the coalition that put him back on the throne consisted of bitter enemies. [20], Margaret fled to Scotland with Edward of Westminster, while the new king returned to London for his coronation.
[55], While the War of the Roses has been documented by numerous historians, Edward as an individual is less well known; 19th century historians like William Stubbs generally dismissed him as a bloodthirsty nonentity. [41] The Duchy was ruled by Charles the Bold, husband of his sister Margaret; he provided minimal help, something Edward never forgot. Edward IV’s death caused many issues with regards to power shortly after he died because of many difficulties. After defeating Lancastrian armies at Mortimer's Cross and Towton in early 1461, he deposed King Henry VI and took the throne. At this stage of Edward's career, contemporaries like Philippe de Commines described him as handsome, affable, and energetic. [7][c], Edward grew up amidst a background of economic decline at home, and military defeat abroad, exacerbated by a weak and corrupt central government. Why did Edward IV’s death cause a bitter power struggle in 1483? [49], In 1475, Edward allied with Burgundy, and declared war on France. These gestures were all symbolic of the final breaking of a contract or official feudal relationship with a very important person. [2] Until his father's death, he was known as the Earl of March. We do not know what the cause of his illness was, although it has been suggested that it could have been Pneumonia or typhoid, or even poison. The service was held in the quire and Edward’s Knightly Achievements were received and displayed – crest, helm, mantling and sword. It is recorded that “the king had started to get fat”, with even his doctors commenting on his eating habits. Did you know that the tomb has been opened since? [82], Edward IV's eldest son, also named Edward, was made Prince of Wales when he was seven months old and given his own household at the age of three.

Clarence was widely suspected of involvement, a factor in his eventual death in the Tower on 18 February 1478; claims he "drowned in a butt of Malmsey wine" appear to have been a joke by Edward, referring to his favourite drink. [e] As Flemish merchants were the largest buyers of English wool, Edward was generally pro-Burgundian, although Duke Charles' reluctance to support him in 1471 impacted their relationship. His close relationship with the London branch of the Medici Bank ended in its bankruptcy; in 1517, the Medicis were still seeking repayment of Edward's debts. [30] Others argue if this was his purpose, there were far better options available; all agree it had significant political implications that impacted the rest of Edward's reign. [71] [72] More than forty of his books survive intact from the 15th century, which suggests they were carefully stored, and are now included in the Royal Collection of manuscripts, held by the British Library.
[27], Edward's motives have been widely discussed by contemporaries and historians alike. [19], Estimates of the dead range from 9,000 to 20,000; figures are uncertain, as most of the mass graves were emptied or moved over the centuries, while corpses were generally stripped of clothing or armour before burial. Unusually tall for the period at 6 feet 4 inches (193 centimetres), he was an impressive sight in armour, and took care to wear splendid clothes.

The death of Charles in 1477 led to the 1482 Treaty of Arras; Flanders, along with the lands known as the Burgundian Netherlands, became part of the Holy Roman Empire, and France acquired the rest. [74] He also began a major upgrade of St George's Chapel, Windsor, where he was buried in 1483; later completed by Henry VII, it was badly damaged during the First English Civil War, and little of the original work remains. [64] He spent large amounts on expensive status symbols to show off his power and wealth as king of England, while his collecting habits show an eye for style and an interest in scholarship, particularly history. Of the 10 kings buried in St George’s Chapel, King Edward IV is probably the most important as it was he who commissioned the building of the chapel back in 1475, primarily for his place of burial.

After the battle, Edward was held in Middleham Castle; on 12 August, his father-in-law Richard Woodville and Richard's younger son, John Woodville, were executed at Kenilworth. Just history. [50] Edward received an immediate payment of 75,000 crowns, plus a yearly pension of 50,000 crowns, thus allowing him to recoup the costs of his army. 16 year old Edward of Westminster died on the battlefield, with surviving leaders like Somerset executed shortly afterwards. On 30th March 1483 Edward became ill after apparently catching cold on a fishing trip. Other suggestions include pneumonia or malaria, although both were well-known and easy to describe. [86], Despite this apparent resolution, the Yorkist cause continued well into the 16th century. Edward was to be buried in St George’s chapel at Windsor Castle, which he had commissioned to be rebuilt, a task that was not to be completed until 1528 on the orders of his grandson Henry VIII. This was followed by Henry's death a few days later; a contemporary chronicle claimed this was due to "melancholy," but it is generally assumed he was killed on Edward's orders. [53] He fell fatally ill at Easter 1483, but survived long enough to add codicils to his will, the most important naming his brother as Protector after his death.

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