hybrid electric vehicle definition

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a high-efficiency gasoline engine (working on the Atkinson cycle, which is a high-expansion ratio cycle), permanent magnet AC synchronous generator, high voltage nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery, a power split device (planetary gear set). This figure includes sales of the Prius α, launched in May 2011, and the Toyota Aqua, launched in December. Image: Vehicle powertrain architecture – Parallel HEV. [118], Toyota's hybrid sales in Japan since 1997, including both Toyota and Lexus models, passed the 1 million mark in July 2010,[96] and reached 1.7 million by April 2012. [109][110][111][112] Among the 13,340 units registered in 2011, the top selling models in the French market were the Toyota Auris (4,740 units), the Prius (2,429 units), and the Honda Jazz Hybrid (1,857 units). Shutting down the engine at idle can also be used to reduce fuel consumption and reduce emissions without the addition of a hybrid drivetrain. Lexus hybrids made up 85% of total sales in Western Europe in 2011. Image: Types of vehicles function of energy source and propulsion device. [12] The United States is the world's largest hybrid market with 2.3 million hybrid automobiles and SUVs sold through April 2012,[8][9][13] and California is the biggest regional American market. PSA Peugeot Citroën has unveiled two demonstrator vehicles featuring a diesel-electric hybrid drivetrain: the Peugeot 307, Citroën C4 Hybride HDi and Citroën C-Cactus. [99][101] The top seller hybrid in the U.S. is the Toyota Prius, with cumulative sales of 1,091,564 units through December 2011, followed by the Honda Civic Hybrid, with cumulative sales of 209,216 vehicles since 2002, and the Toyota Camry Hybrid, with 178,805 units sold since 2006. [26][27] General Motors launched the 2011 Chevrolet Volt series plug-in in December 2010. However, with the current 2010 DOD budget all FCS land vehicles have been put on hold. Hydrogen is not burned, but it is consumed. Despite keeping to the top selling spot, total Prius sales for 2011 were 20% lower than 2010 due partly to the disruptions caused by the March 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, and also because government incentives for hybrid cars were scaled back. In 1905, Henri Pieper of Germany/Belgium introduced a hybrid vehicle with an electric motor/generator, batteries, and a small gasoline engine. The most common form of HEV is the hybrid electric car, although hybrid electric trucks (pickups and tractors) and buses also exist. [129] Sales reached 84,839 units in 2011, including 59,161 Toyota and 25,678 Lexus hybrid vehicles. [4][5], More than 4.5 million hybrid electric vehicles have been sold worldwide by the end of December 2011, led by Toyota Motor Company (TMC) with more than 3.5 million Lexus and Toyota hybrids,[6] followed by Honda Motor Co., Ltd. with cumulative sales of more than 800 thousand hybrids,[7] and Ford Motor Corporation with more than 185 thousand hybrids sold in the United States by December 2011. [60], The Mercedes-Benz S400 BlueHybrid was unveiled in the 2009 Chicago Auto Show,[62] and sales began in the U.S. in October 2009. "Japan urges China to ease rare metals supply." Image: Vehicle powertrain architecture – ICE, Image: Vehicle powertrain architecture – EV. [14] In terms of new hybrids sold per capita, the District of Columbia was the leader in 2009 with 3.79 hybrids per 1000 residents, followed by Califormia (1.54) and Washington (1.53).[14]. Cumulative sales of Toyota hybrids since 2000 reached 69,674 units in 2006, while Honda hybrid sales reached over 8,000 units. [202] Residents in British Columbia are eligible for a 100% reduction of sales tax up to a maximum of $2,000 if the hybrid electric vehicle is purchased or leased before April 1, 2011, (extended in 2007/2008 budget from March 31, 2008, and expanded from a maximum of only $1,000 from April 1, 2008, to March 31, 2009, at which point the concession was scheduled to expire. The main components of the THS II are: This power electronics control unit contains a high-voltage power circuit for raising the voltage of the power supply system for the motor and the generator to a high voltage of 500 V, in addition to an AC-DC inverter for converting between the AC current from the motor and the generator and the DC current from the hybrid battery. There are several versions of THS, in this article we are going to focus on THS II, explaining the components and how it works. [122][123] Nevertheless, during the 2011 Japanese fiscal year (April 1, 2011 through March 31, 2012), hybrid vehicles accounted for 16% of all new car sales in the country. Worldwide sales of hybrid vehicles produced by TMC reached 1.0 million units in May 2007; 2.0 million in August 2009; and the 4.0 million mark in April 2012. A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a type of hybrid vehicle and electric vehicle which combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) propulsion system with an electric propulsion system. [14] The following table summarizes the top metropolitan area markets in terms of new hybrids sold per capita. 3/2012 - The fleet of vehicles on 1 January 2012]", http://www.kba.de/cln_032/nn_1127080/DE/Presse/PressemitteilungenStatistiken/2012/Fahrzeugbestand/fz__bestand__pm__text.html, "Ventas en España de coches híbridos y eléctricos en 2011 [Spain sales of hybrid and electric cars in 2011]", http://www.motorpasionfuturo.com/coches-electricos/ventas-en-espana-de-coches-hibridos-y-electricos-en-2011, http://www.technologyreview.com/Energy/21442/?nlid=1374, Autoexpress on diesel-electric Peugeot 308, http://www.psa-peugeot-citroen.com/document/presse_communique/CP_hybride_HDI_GB1138705079.pdf, "Crowded car industry eyes electric future", http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/business/8253196.stm, Bosch says it has contract for diesel-hybrid parts - Automotive News Europe, About Fedex Hybrid Electric Vehicle in the USA, FedEx to Launch Commercial Hybrid-Electric Vans from Iveco in Europe, http://www.hybridcarblog.com/2007/06/ford-delivers-e85-hybrid-vehicles.html, "Hybrids Running on E85 Ethanol Fuel: 5 Things to Know", http://www.greencar.com/articles/hybrids-running-e85-ethanol-fuel-5-things.php, http://www.foodandfuelamerica.com/2008/06/ford-delivers-flex-fuel-hybrid-to-doe.html, "Chevrolet Volt-GM's concept electric vehicle could eliminate trips to the gas station", http://www.prdomain.com/companies/G/GeneralMotors/newsreleases/20071838357.htm, "GM Chevrolet Volt Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle", http://www.greencar.com/articles/gm-chevrolet-volt-plug-hybrid-electric-vehicle.php, "GM Reaffirms Commitment to Biofuels, Calls for Ongoing Commercialization and Infrastructure Support", http://www.greencarcongress.com/2010/02/stephens-20100216.html#more, "Even With the Volt: GM Remains Committed to Ethanol", http://blogs.edmunds.com/greencaradvisor/2010/02/even-with-the-volt-gm-remains-committed-to-ethanol.html, "Hybrid Cars Losing Efficiency, Adding Oomph", http://www.greenhybrid.com/compare/mileage/, http://www.usatoday.com/money/economy/2007-10-03-2698183585_x.htm, "Electric cars and noise: The sound of silence", http://www.economist.com/science/displaystory.cfm?story_id=13606446, "Electric Car Warning Sounds: Don't Expect Ring Tones", http://wheels.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/06/01/electric-car-warning-sounds-dont-expect-ringtones/, "TMC to Sell Approaching Vehicle Audible System for 'Prius'", http://www2.toyota.co.jp/en/news/10/08/0824.html, "Incidence of Pedestrian and Bicyclist Crashes by Hybrid Electric Passenger Vehicles", National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/811204.PDF, "Nissan demonstrates the affordable, 100% electric, zero-emission Nissan LEAF", http://www.nissan-global.com/EN/NEWS/2010/_STORY/100611-01-e.html, http://www.autoblog.com/2010/06/14/nissan-leaf-will-break-the-ev-silence-with-a-digital-whistle-w/#continued%7Ctitle=Nissan, "GM Says Volt Crew Working to Resolve 'Silent EV' Sound Safety Issue", http://blogs.edmunds.com/greencaradvisor/2009/11/gm-says-volt-crew-working-to-resolve-silent-ev-sound-safety-issue.html, "Hybrid Cars May Include Fake Vroom for Safety", http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/14/automobiles/14hybrid.html?_r=2, "Are Hybrid Cars Too Quiet to Be Safe for Pedestrians? – additional to the MHEV characteristics: – fuel cell is used as an energy converter, there is primary energy source (1) and a secondary energy source (2), there is primary energy converter (1) and a secondary energy converter (2), the primary energy source has much more energy content than the secondary energy source, energy can be transferred from the primary energy source towards the secondary energy source but not vice versa, the transfer of energy from the primary source towards the secondary source is done through energy converters, improve vehicle dynamics by increasing torque and power output, flexibility in packaging and location of the engine-generator set, simple control strategies for the internal combustion engine (operating at most economical speed and torque), it requires an additional electric machine (generator), without the help of the engine, the electric motor must be designed for the maximum sustained power that the vehicle may require, such as when climbing a high grade; however, the vehicle operates below the maximum power most of the time, all three drivetrain components need to be designed for maximum power for long-distance, sustained, high-speed driving; this is required, because the batteries will deplete fairly quickly, leaving the engine to supply all the power through the generator, it needs only two propulsion components: engine and electric machine (motor/generator). Free-piston engines could be used to generate electricity as efficiently as, and less expensively than, fuel cells.[136]. The intent was to produce a vehicle which could operate on the engine in the country, and electric mode in the city. The English word games are: A trunk-mounted nickel-cadmium battery supplied energy to the motor that drove the rear wheels. Hybrid electric truck technology and powertrain maker: ZF Friedrichshafen. In a series-parallel HEV, a power split device (PSD) allocates power from the ICE to the front wheels through the driveshaft and the electric generator, depending on the driving condition. Of these, 2.63 million units correspond to the original Prius, representing 65.8% of cumulative TMC sales, and Prius family vehicle sales accounted for 71.8% TMC worldwide volume. The ability to mass-produce these items helps to overcome the investment hurdles faced by start-up brands and bring new engineering concepts into mainstream markets. Letters must be adjacent and longer words score better. Hydrogen can be used in cars in two ways: a source of combustible heat, or a source of electrons for an electric motor. HFEVs may also comprise closed-cell batteries for the purpose of power storage from regenerative braking, but this does not change the source of the motivation. Our website provides free and high quality content by displaying ads to our visitors. The vehicle acceleration phase requires the engine to increase torque and speed, which has negative impact on the fuel consumption and/or exhaust gas emissions.

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