kidney stones wiki

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Nephrology is the medical specialty which addresses diseases of kidney function: these include chronic kidney disease, nephritic and nephrotic syndromes, acute kidney injury, and pyelonephritis. Master using Zoom and feel more confident online. In those with calcium stones, drinking lots of fluids, thiazide diuretics and citrate are effective as is allopurinol in those with high uric acid levels in the blood or urine. The left cross-section in the upper abdomen shows the liver on the left side of scan (right side of body). In fact, the vast majority of people who are treated with a typical dose of shock waves using currently accepted treatment settings are likely to experience some degree of acute kidney injury. This article has been viewed 10,325 times. Distinctive features of the mammalian kidney, in comparison with that of other vertebrates, include the presence of the renal pelvis and renal pyramids and a clearly distinguishable cortex and medulla. These include sodium bicarbonate, potassium citrate, magnesium citrate, and Bicitra (a combination of citric acid monohydrate and sodium citrate dihydrate). Other forms that can possibly grow to become staghorn stones are those composed of cystine, calcium oxalate monohydrate, and uric acid. Depending on your situation, you may need nothing more than to take pain medication and drink lots of water to pass a kidney stone.
Initial stone location also influences the likelihood of spontaneous stone passage. The Roman medical treatise De Medicina by Aulus Cornelius Celsus contained a description of lithotomy, and this work served as the basis for this procedure until the 18th century. This can contribute to stone formation in children at risk for calcium-containing stones. Food such as rhubarb, spinach, peanuts, strawberries, wheat bran and chocolate all contain large amounts of oxalate. Examples of substances secreted are hydrogen, ammonium, potassium and uric acid. The functional substance, or parenchyma, of the kidney is divided into two major structures: the outer renal cortex and the inner renal medulla. If your doctor suspects kidney stones but does not see blood in your urine test, they may run other tests to confirm or rule out a kidney stone diagnosis. These advantages are especially apparent with stones greater than 10 mm (0.4 in) in diameter. wikiHow is a “wiki,” similar to Wikipedia, which means that many of our articles are co-written by multiple authors.
Ureteroscopy has become increasingly popular as flexible and rigid fiberoptic ureteroscopes have become smaller. [12] Between the renal pyramids are projections of cortex called renal columns.

Kidney stones (also called renal calculi, nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis) are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys. The kidneys excrete a variety of waste products produced by metabolism into the urine. Each arcuate artery supplies several interlobular arteries that feed into the afferent arterioles that supply the glomeruli. In the United States, the frequency in the population of urolithiasis has increased from 3.2% to 5.2% from the mid-1970s to the mid-1990s. A plasma glucose level of approximately 160 is sufficient to allow glucosuria, which is an important clinical clue to diabetes mellitus.

Some evidence indicates magnesium intake decreases the risk of symptomatic kidney stones. [12] Each renal artery branches into segmental arteries, dividing further into interlobar arteries, which penetrate the renal capsule and extend through the renal columns between the renal pyramids. Image showing the structures that the kidney lies near. Reabsorbs via medullary hypertonicity and makes urine hypertonic. At the same time, your urine may lack substances that prevent crystals from sticking together, creating an ideal environment for kidney stones to form. Various surgical interventions, e.g. [45] The insertion of a drainage tube into the renal pelvis, bypassing the uterers and urinary tract, called nephrostomy], was first described in 1941. [45] This was improved on by VF Marshall who is the first published use of a flexible endoscope based on fiber optics, which occurred in 1964. The task force published a white paper outlining their conclusions in 2009.

It is currently used in the treatment of uncomplicated stones located in the kidney and upper ureter, provided the aggregate stone burden (stone size and number) is less than 20 mm (0.8 in) and the anatomy of the involved kidney is normal. Urolithiasis, kidney stone, renal calculus, nephrolith, kidney stone disease, A kidney stone, 8 millimeters (0.3 in) in, Severe pain in the lower back or abdomen, blood in the urine, vomiting, nausea, Drinking fluids such that more than two liters of urine are produced per day. [31] In amphibians, kidneys and the urinary bladder harbour specialized parasites, monogeneans of the family Polystomatidae. Ruminant urolithiasis associated with oxalate ingestion has been reported. adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency, Passing kidney stones can be quite painful, but the stones usually cause no permanent damage if they're recognized in a timely fashion. A CT scan of the abdomen showing the position of the kidneys. Some of the oxalate in urine is produced by the body. Prevention of struvite stones depends on staying infection-free. Renal histology is the study of the microscopic structure of the kidney.

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