westernization of china 19th century
Korea remained independent until late 19th century when China wanted to block the influence Japan had on Korean Peninsula and the pressure by the Russians. In order to understand the gravity of the contrast between China prior to and after Western influence, it is important to understand what China’s longstanding system of tributary rule entailed. In contrast to territorial delineation, others, like the American political scientist Samuel P. Huntington (see The Clash of Civilizations), consider what is "Western" based on religious affiliation, such as deeming the majority-Western Christian part of Europe and North America the West, and creating 6 other civilizations, including Latin America, Confucian, Japanese, Islamic, Hindu and Slavic-Orthodox, to organize the rest of the globe. In the time of cold war, the literature which talked about China’s development focused on two major issues, one was that the involvement in international trade was less likely to be helpful in search of economic development for poor countries. The Qing government was eventually weakened by the numerous rebellions as they tried to pursue economic stability as the economic crisis had worsened by the end of 19th century to a national status (Chung, Para. In fact China is very reluctant to succumb to international pressure as it is on its way to gain the title the world’s economic giant. As the biggest Eastern populations gain more power, they are moving away from the Western influences they sought after in the past. As a result, Turkey is one of the most Westernized majority-Muslim nations. This industry was almost eliminated as open system led to the importation of cheaper machine-made cloths and other products. 1. However, the collapse of the Qing Dynasty made a humiliate history of China. Japan was in a similar situation in the black boat incident in 1853, the Opium War made the West began to pay attention to East Asia, values, norms, and culture tends to promote Western capitalism. Westernization, which primarily spread in the mid to late 19th century, brought forth a profound change of ideas and cultures across the world. In 1855, the river flooded again and the fertile and among the most productive province of Jiangsu was in ruins as farmland was destroyed and loss of lives intensified. Conclusion The Chinese people were against the opening of China by the Opium War, but the control of China and influence by the Western countries made China a semi-feudal semi-colonial state. Thus, "the West" acts as a construction in the similar way as does "the Orient" – it is a created notion to justify a particular set of power relations, in this case the colonization and rule of a foreign country. The Chinese exhibited a false sense of superiority as they believed that they had nothing to gain by trading with other countries. The second was that the culture and social structure of China was a great impediment to its development. This meant that rural electrification had to be initiated, a total industrial automation, a focus on a new outlook of the economy, and an enhanced national security and strength on defense. When the traders complained to their government, the British government responded with military pressure which led to the opium war and unequal treaties system. In: Baylis J, Smith S, Owens P, editors. Hungtington SP, "The Clash of Civilizations?" custom paper from our expert writers, Western Countries Influence on China in the 19th Century. The country was locked to external trade and it was not until after the Opium War that the country was forcefully opened to the world, which carried both positive and negative effects (Rawski, Para. Although Russia converted to Christianity in the 10th century, the West expanded to include it fully when Peter the Great deeply reformed the country's government, the church and modernized the society thanks to the ideas brought from the Netherlands.  The Westernization efforts continued under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, with the adaptation of the Latin-script alphabet and the French concept of secularism. In Orientalism Edward Said views Westernization as it occurred in the process of colonization, an exercise of essentializing a "subject race" in order to more effectively dominate them. Development of modern highways, and compounding of Petrochemical, steel and other industries ensured that the economic capacity of the nation was improved. This led the Qing government to increase its dependence on the European Imperial forces and subsequent purchase of modern weapons. According to Chung (Para. This has led to increase in economic ties between China and the U. S. China is still marked with low-cost labor and as such, most U. S. companies operate in China so as to benefit from the vast and booming Chinese Market and low cost of operations as a result of taking advantage of the low cost labor in their export-oriented manufacturing (Rawski, Para. 7), the Muslim rebellions that tried to enhance equal rights among the Muslims and the non-Muslims, the Taipings rebellion, and other groups that were opposed to the Qing government failed to strike a solution to the prevailing social and economic crisis, as millions of people died.
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